Theoretical and methodical principles of spiritual formation of students in the educational process of higher educational establishment

- Лаппо, В.В. (2018) Theoretical and methodical principles of spiritual formation of students in the educational process of higher educational establishment Masters thesis, Інститут проблем виховання.

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Abstract

In the dissertation, for the first time, a comprehensive substantiation of the problem of the spiritual formation of students in the educational process of higher educational establishments has been made, the structural and functional model of the determined process has been developed and tested. The analysis of the status of the students' spiritual formation problem in the domestic pedagogical theory and practice shows that this problem has not yet been disclosed in the context of the tasks of scientific and pedagogical research. Approaches to the definition of the essence of the concept of "spiritual values" have been updated, which made it possible to interpret it as a certain degree of unity of the spiritual and moral properties of the individual, which are manifested in the subject-subjective and intercultural relations, direct, orient, and regulate the relations of people. They act in the harmonious unity of man with himself, with other people, nature, society. The essence of the concept "spiritual values of student youth" is specified in the dissertation; the problem of formation of spiritual values of the person in the historical and pedagogical retrospective is investigated. It has been proved that the student's age is optimal for the development of person's consciousness value and semantic structures and is characterized as the final stage of preparation for starting an independent professional activity. At this age, moral instincts appear in the future as value orientations in the practice and behavior of the individual. It is at this age that the role of persuasion and responsibility for life choices and his own value orientations grows, such qualities as purposefulness, determination, perseverance, self-dependence, self-starting, ability to control oneself, are being strengthened, and the interest in spiritual and moral problems is being increased. 11 The content structure of the student's spiritual values, which includes cognitive, emotional and value, praxical components, has been substantiated. It was found out that the high level of formation of the motivational and value component ensures the full functioning of spiritual values. At the same time, subject to the students' enormous knowledge (cognitive components) acquisition, their ability to self-dependence and creativity, modeling the situations of interaction, variability of behavior can significantly decrease. Criteria and indicators of the spiritual formation of students have been developed, four levels of their formation (high, sufficient, average, low) have been highlighted. According to the results of the ascertaining stage of the study, the analysis of the formation of the basic components (cognitive, emotional and value, praxical) of the spiritual values of the students of higher educational institutions has been conducted. The potential of social and humanitarian disciplines, extracurricular activities in the spiritual formation of students has been revealed, namely: the analysis of content of academic disciplines "Philosophy", "History of Ukrainian culture", "Culturology", "Ethics and aesthetics", "General pedagogy", "History of pedagogy", "Pedagogical skill", "Teaching theory and methods", the possibility of the indicated disciplines in the spiritual formation of students has been highlighted. The fact of insufficient illumination in the analyzed programs of a person's spirituality essence and spiritual values has been revealed. According to the results of studying the experience of extracurricular activities of a higher educational institution, it is concluded that the organization of the educational process is not always focused on creating conditions for selfdevelopment, self-identification of the student's personality, realization of his natural instincts and abilities, his spiritual formation. There has been developed a structural and functional model for the formation of the student youth's spiritual values in the educational process of a higher educational institution, the main components of which are reflected in the target 12 (purpose and task), theoretical and methodological (methodological approaches, principles), content (components of the phenomenon "spiritual values of the individual"), technological (pedagogical conditions, forms, methods, means of forming spiritual values of students), effective (increase in the level of formation of spiritual values of students) blocks. The developed structural and functional model for the spiritual formation of students in the educational process of a higher educational institution reflects the necessity of realization of the goal, taking into account the principles of education and upbringing. The model contains tasks, content components, functions, technological support, pedagogical conditions. It has been revealed that the successful spiritual formation of students is carried out under the following conditions: formation in the student group of the educational environment, which activates students' learning of spiritual values; optimization of spiritually directed educational activity of students; pedagogical support of students in moral selfdetermination, revealing spiritual values. It has been proved that the forms and methods of spiritual formation have social control and practical approach, providing methods of interaction between teachers and students, determining to what extent the students participate in the educational process and the time interval of its implementation. The forms of formation of spiritual values have been systematized on the following basic features: the content and pedagogical efficiency in the development of the cognitive, emotional, value and praxical areas of students; theoretical and practical significance for the formation of optimal models of relations in the system of "teacher, supervisor - student - student collective"; self-dependence and activity of students; place and share of application in the educational process; time interval of implementation. Forms of spiritual formation of students in the educational process of a higher educational institution are classified as follows: theoretical training (lecture, seminar, special course, conference, coterie, club communication, etc.); combined training (club activities, self-study, co-lecture, interlecture, training course, conference); educational and practical (communicative and activity, role- 13 based, socio-dramatic, business game, trainings, brain-ring, press conference, excursion); practically mass (competition, holiday, evening of questions and answers, Club for the Funny and Inventive, tournament on preferences); project, socially useful (in the form of a volunteer movement) activity. The basic methods aimed at the spiritual formation of students include drawing up individual programs of personal growth, self-presentation, development and protection of creative projects, Socratic dialogues, discussion swings, solving individual and value problems ("angles", "snowballs", "graffiti") , exercises. It has been proved that a special course "Spiritual values of the person: ways of formation" has significant potential for the process of forming the spiritual values of the students, since it creates the optimal conditions for the integration of knowledge about spiritual values with improving the skills and abilities of students. The essential structural elements of the model for the spiritual formation of students are the organization of methodological work with teachers, supervisors in order to increase their competence regarding the spiritual formation of students. It has been established that the process of spiritual formation of students is determined by the regularities of individual, mental development of the student and is effectively carried out subject to aiming of classroom work and extracurricular activities to develop cognitive, emotional-value, praxical spheres, but the motivational-value component is the key in the content structure. In view of this, classroom work and extracurricular activities should have a value-oriented character and be implemented on the basis of the subject-subject interaction of participants in the educational process. Successful formation of spiritual values is possible provided that the modeled pedagogical forms of interpersonal interaction are introduced into the educational process, which, through real experiences and search activity, would encourage students to consciously identify spiritual values in their daily lives; developing spiritual formation techniques among teachers, 14 supervisors through purposeful theoretical and methodological training, scientific and methodological support of the educational process. The results of the ascertaining stage of the experiment indicated an inadequate level of formation of the components of spiritual values among students. It was found that students lack knowledge about the spiritual values of the person, the peculiarities of relationship. Expressing their spiritual values in the relationships is not always motivated by their internal need, many of them lack the skills of self-regulation of emotions, skills of dignity, responsibility, tolerance, charity, self-sufficiency. Studying the state of educational work in a higher educational institution revealed significant disadvantages in its conducting: most teachers do not determine the level of education of students, their individual characteristics, conduct educational work without analyzing the results; they often focus their attention on obtaining formal performance indicators rather than on the formation of students' spiritual values, the development of the need for adequate selfexpression, self-affirmation, showing their individuality, creative potential in educational, social activities; it has been observed that teachers and supervisors focus too much on organizational issues, rather than on the development of amateur activity and initiative of boys and girls. The interaction of the teacher, the supervisor and the students is based, for the most part, on the object type, and not on the basis of cooperation and co-creation. The revealed shortcomings are a prerequisite for the organization of special educational work aimed at obtaining by students knowledge about the essence and peculiarities of the spiritual values of the individual, developing their value relation to this integral personality formation, developing skills of dignity, tolerance, responsibility, charity, selfsufficiency, optimizing relations in the system "teacher, supervisor - student". The comparison of the results of the ascertaining and control stages of the experiment showed positive changes in the characteristics of the spiritual values of the students of experimental groups, namely: in the cognitive, emotional-value, behavioral spheres, in indicators of levels of the formation of spiritual values, and, 15 therefore, confirm the effectiveness of the proposed model for the formation of the spiritual values of the students and pedagogical conditions (the design of the spiritually directed content of students' training in higher education institutions; student group's educational environment formation, which activates the learning of spiritual values by students; the pedagogical support of students in moral selfdetermination, expressing spiritual values. Effectiveness and pedagogical efficiency of the developed content, forms, methods, means, pedagogical conditions as components of the model of formation of spiritual values of students of higher educational institutions have been proved by quantitative and qualitative changes in the formation of spiritual values of students. Indices of the formation of the investigated quality in experimental groups at the control stage of the study significantly exceed the indices of control groups of students and are several times higher than the corresponding indices obtained at the stage of the study. To assess the effectiveness of the research we need to increase the number of students of experimental groups with high and sufficient levels of the formation of the praxical component, which at the ascertaining stage was the least developed. Using correlation analysis it was determined that the indicators of the praxical component of spiritual values (activity in establishing positive relationships with others; observance of spiritual and moral norms, rules of conduct in relations with people; identification of spiritual values; formation of moral and spiritual qualities) are related in a statistically significant way to the characteristics of the cognitive component (students' knowledge of the essence of spiritual values, mechanisms of their expression), motives of behavior, empathy. The study of the correlates of spiritual values makes it possible to determine the system of characteristics, the development of which helps to actualize the student's orientation towards another person, to promote its successful spiritual growth. The analysis of the results of research and experimental verification of the effectiveness of the formation of the investigated personality education of students of higher educational institutions confirms the pedagogical expediency and 16 effectiveness of a well-founded and implemented model of the formation of spiritual values of students. The essence and content of the concept "students' spiritual values" have been specified as an integral personal formation aimed at other people (dignity, responsibility, tolerance, charity, self-sufficiency), which makes their behavior constructive and ensures the possibility of realizing the subject-subject interaction, adaptation and self-realization of the individual in society. The conceptual foundations of the spiritual formation of students of higher educational institutions, which are based on the ideas of systemic, axiological, polysubject and competence approaches, have been defined. The practical significance of the research is to develop and implement a model for the spiritual formation of students in the educational process of a higher educational establishment; to process material that can be used in the development of concrete practical recommendations for improving the educational process in a higher educational institution; to develop a comprehensive program for studying the level of spiritual formation of students of higher educational institutions; to develop and test the special course "Person's spiritual values: ways of formation"; to prepare teaching aids "Introduction to a specialty: preschool education" (2013), "Teaching methods in summer children's health camps" (2016), "Fundamentals of ethnopedagogy" (2012), "Fundamentals of scientific and pedagogical research" (2012) "Fundamentals of pedagogical research" (2016), "Preschool pedagogy" (2016), "Teaching theory" (2013), "Philosophy" (2013), methodological recommendations "Teaching spiritual values to students in the center of the academic group of higher educational institutions" (2016); to develop curricula and working programs of educational disciplines "Introduction to the specialty: preschool education", "Ethnopedagogy", "Inclusive education", "Innovative technologies in pedagogy", "Teaching methods", "Fundamentals of pedagogical research", "Pedagogical skill" , "Teaching theory", "Teaching theory and methods", "Philosophy". 17 The results of the study will be useful for university lecturers, group supervisors, student self-government coordinators, deputy heads of faculties (institutes) of education, youth workers' organizations, researchers in the field of humanities.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Keywords: spiritual values, responsibility, tolerance, charity dignity,, selfsufficiency, students, pedagogical conditions, structural-functional model, educational environment, pedagogical support, higher educational institution
Subjects: Science and knowledge. Organization. Computer science. Information. Documentation. Librarianship. Institutions. Publications > 3 Social Sciences > 37 Education > 37.01/.09 Special auxiliary table for theory, principles, methods and organization of education > 37.01 Fundamentals of education. Theory. Policy etc.
Science and knowledge. Organization. Computer science. Information. Documentation. Librarianship. Institutions. Publications > 3 Social Sciences > 37 Education > 37.01/.09 Special auxiliary table for theory, principles, methods and organization of education > 37.09 Organization of instruction
Science and knowledge. Organization. Computer science. Information. Documentation. Librarianship. Institutions. Publications > 3 Social Sciences > 37 Education > 378 Higher education. Universities. Academic study
Divisions: Institute of Problems on Education > Laboratory of civil and moral education
Depositing User: Альона Леонідівна Демянчук
Date Deposited: 22 Feb 2019 12:48
Last Modified: 22 Feb 2019 12:48
URI: http://lib.iitta.gov.ua/id/eprint/710839

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