Intellectual Concepts: Progress Forward or Moving on Charming Wheel

- Волощук, Іван Степанович (orcid.org/0000-0001-9300-0584) and Рудик, Ярослав Михайлович (orcid.org/0000-0001-5382-1505) (2020) Intellectual Concepts: Progress Forward or Moving on Charming Wheel Education and Development of Gifted Personality, 3 (78). pp. 105-112. ISSN 2309 ‑3935

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Abstract

Since ancient times, humanity has used the concept of “intellect” in order to convey the inherent individual’s property of knowledge of the world, adaptation to it and partial change it. Two millennia later, it has emerged that we have a satisfactory knowledge of the essence of intelligence, can more or less successfully determine the level of intelligence of individuals across a wide range of ages, without knowing the structure of this complex phenomenon, the physiological processes underlying its manifestation at the level of the psyche. First of all, the complexity of the object of study should be sought. On the other hand, a retrospective analysis of studies of the essence of intelligence convinces us that researchers primarily focused their attention on beautiful speculative constructs, rather than on empirical facts that shed light on the essence of intelligence, its structure, physiological mechanisms of processes involved in intellectual activity, etc. As a result, the article shows that we have many concepts of intelligence and no adequate theory of it. In particular, Aristotle’s contribution to the field of psychology in which intelligence is explored is emphasized. In addition, the results of studies of a whole galaxy of psychologists who have published their own vision of the essence of intelligence, intellectual differences between people in qualitative and quantitative dimensions are given. Comparison of their results made it possible to outline the trajectory of the movement of scientific thought in clarifying the essence of intelligence. Initially, the intellect was sought to be associated with someone ability, most likely dominant. Subsequently, this idea was abandoned and several structural components were sought out in the intellect, attributing to them the status of principal. After that, they tried to prove that some structural components work in virtually all the kinds of intellectual activity. These kinds appeared to be so diverse and relatively remote that the idea of introducing the notion of type of intelligence into the scientific world arose. However, this idea did not overcome the idea of partial unitarity of intelligence in the form of separation of general and special intelligence. Consequently, concepts of successful, practical, emotional and other intellects were offered. But they did not cause any significant changes in clarifying the essence of intelligence. A certain breakthrough in the understanding of the essence of intelligence has emerged in connection with the cognitive revolution and the study of the neurophysiological mechanisms of intellectual activity. But scientific thought in this sense made only the first step. The horizons of an adequate theory of intelligence are only visible.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: intelligence; concept; theory; development; difference
Subjects: Science and knowledge. Organization. Computer science. Information. Documentation. Librarianship. Institutions. Publications > 3 Social Sciences > 37 Education > 37.01/.09 Special auxiliary table for theory, principles, methods and organization of education > 37.04 Education in relation to the educand, pupil. Guidance
Science and knowledge. Organization. Computer science. Information. Documentation. Librarianship. Institutions. Publications > 3 Social Sciences > 37 Education > 376 Education, teaching, training of special groups of persons. Special schools > 376.5 Виховання та освіта обдарованих дітей, вундеркіндів.
Divisions: Institute of the gifted child > Innovative Technologies in Gifted Education Department
Depositing User: н.с. Олена Василівна Онопченко
Date Deposited: 15 Dec 2020 23:10
Last Modified: 15 Dec 2020 23:10
URI: https://lib.iitta.gov.ua/id/eprint/722694

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