Development and improvement of special education for children with intellectual disabilities in Poland during the communist period (1945 - 1991)

- Шевченко, В.М. (orcid.org/0000-0003-0119-3206) (2019) Development and improvement of special education for children with intellectual disabilities in Poland during the communist period (1945 - 1991) Topical Issues in the Humanities, 3 (23). pp. 173-178. ISSN 2308-4855

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Abstract

The article highlights the development and improvement of special education for children with intellectual disabilities in Poland during the communist era.The author analyzes legislation, socialstatus, lifestyle, form of care, education and education of children with intellectual disabilities.The article summarizes: the restoration and development of special education in the field of oligophrenopedagogy for 45 years; the activities of scientists and educators in this direction; the activities of the National Institute for Special Education in Warsaw; influence of pedagogical congresses and congresses.The war and the occupation of Polish lands during the Second World War tragically affected the fate of children with disabilities. After the war, the period for the restoration of special education in Poland begins. New forms of care, education and upbringing for children with mental disorders are developing. Around this issue, the scientific movement is developing, intensive research is being conducted, experimental schools, specialized journals are created, articles in the field of special education are published.The changes that took place in special education for such children in Poland due to changes in the socio-political situation are described. The author notes that in the postwar period and before the beginning of the 1990s the structure of special education in Poland has changed. In addition to special schools, there were organized kindergartens, departments at secondary schools, vocational schools, the «School of Life»and others. However, the weakness of the school (segregation) system of education over time made it necessary to seek innovative solutions in this direction. This was in linewith the socio-economic situation in the country. Subsequently, it led to the popularity of the concept of «integrative education system».In general, during the twentieth century, numerous attempts were made to determine mental retardation in Poland. These definitions differed depending on the accepted approach -medical, pedagogical, psychological, social and evolutionary. They reflected the theoretical views on the essence of the rational elucidation and determined the forms of rehabilitation and upbringing.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: special education, children with intellectual disabilities in Poland, educational policy, Maria Grzegorzewska, National Institute of Special Education.
Subjects: Science and knowledge. Organization. Computer science. Information. Documentation. Librarianship. Institutions. Publications > 3 Social Sciences > 37 Education > 376 Education, teaching, training of special groups of persons. Special schools
Science and knowledge. Organization. Computer science. Information. Documentation. Librarianship. Institutions. Publications > 3 Social Sciences > 37 Education > 376 Education, teaching, training of special groups of persons. Special schools > 376.3 Виховання та освіта осіб із вадами зору, слуху, мови та нервовими захворюваннями.
Divisions: Mykola Yarmachenko Institute of special education and psychology of National academy of educational sciences of Ukraine > Department of education of children with hearing disabilities
Depositing User: Лабораторія сурдопедагогіки
Date Deposited: 07 Nov 2019 17:26
Last Modified: 07 Nov 2019 17:26
URI: http://lib.iitta.gov.ua/id/eprint/717666

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