Аxiological criteria of age psychology

- Зязюн, Іван Андрійович (2013) Аxiological criteria of age psychology Інститут педагогічної освіти і освіти дорослих Національної академії педагогічних наук України, 2 (7). pp. 6-24. ISSN 2308-6386

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Abstract

L. Vygotsky was the first systemic analyst of age psychology which was viewed by him as a new-type formation of personality and his/her activity. It was interpreted in terms of those psychological and social changes which originally appear on a certain age step, and which, basically and generally, define the child’s consciousness, his/her relations with the surroundings, his/her inner and outer life, the whole process and the results of his/her development at a particular period of time. «Age is a relatively closed developmental cycle with its own structure and dynamics». The theory of L. Vygotsky which has been evolving and has been complemented by his disciples and followers is the theory of the age structure and dynamics. At every definite age the social developmental situation contains a contradiction – a new genetic task which is carried out due to the creation of a new system of relations, a new social developmental situation, which confirms the child’s transition to the next (new) psychological age. In L. Vygotsky’s opinion, age periods are the holistic dynamic entity, the structure which establishes the role and importance of every general and particular lines of development. In every age period of development the personality changes as integrity in its inner structure and the laws of these changes determine the movement of every its constituent. Currently, the following age periodization is in use: childhood (from birth to 1 year old); before preschool childhood (1-3 years old); preschool childhood (3-6 years old); junior school age (6-10 years old); adolescence (10-15 years old); youth: the first step (senior school age 15-17 years old), the second period (17-21 years old); mature age: the first period (21-35 years old), the second period (35-60 years old); elderly age (65-75 years old); old age (75-90 years old); centenarians (90 years old and more). Age psychology acquired its independence in the field of psychology as a separate sphere of knowledge at the end of the XIX century. On appearing in the scientific world as «children’s psychology», it has been long restricted to the investigation of a child’s psychological development peculiarities. Social, cultural and related research enquiries, achievements of the proper psychological and pedagogical sciences resulted in the consideration of every age period in terms of development. They made obvious the necessity of the holistic analysis of ontogenetic process and cross-science researches. Thus, the units of age psychology are: children’s psychology (which studies the peculiarities of the psychological development of a child from his/her birth inclusively to his/her adolescence); youth psychology, third-age psychology and gerontologic psychology (psychology of the old age). Age psychology, being named for a long time as children’s psychology, has created and developed the scientific principles and the basic theoretical provisions of age psychology for the psychology of childhood. As a rule, they are very valuable for the psychological research of mature and old ages. They have proved to be also important for a range of sciences, particularly for proper psychology with its subfields which are vitally necessary for the development of a man – pedagogical psychology and psychological pedagogy. Scientists have stated that the first possible characteristic feature of the psychophysiological nature of matureness which is defined by genetic psychology is the stabilization of functional levels of major activities and the creation of indefinitely prolonged fixed status. Unlike genetic psychology, gerontology does not treat matureness as «life statistics». On the contrary, it is a number of complicated processes which break the fixed status and where involution processes occupy a special place.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: psychological age, age sociality, pedagogical psychology, psychological pedagogy, personality development, activity, action, central new entity, critical age, proximal development zone, actual development, central development line, side development line, psychological experience.
Subjects: Science and knowledge. Organization. Computer science. Information. Documentation. Librarianship. Institutions. Publications > 1 Philosophy. Psychology
Divisions: Institute of Pedagogical Education and Education for the Adults > Common resources institute
Depositing User: доктор філософських наук, професор, дійсний член НАПН України Іван Андрійович Зязюн
Date Deposited: 11 Mar 2014 18:29
Last Modified: 16 Mar 2016 09:25
URI: http://lib.iitta.gov.ua/id/eprint/2175

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